Potato Protein Power

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POTATOES.3.
“Potatoes” – Photo by Leonie Elizabeth 23 December 2017

If you have read one or many nutrition articles of recent years you would be forgiven for thinking that potatoes are nothing but carbohydrates with no other purpose as a food than converting to sugar, spiking blood glucose and creating havoc to our metabolic systems. Once a proud staple food, it has been attacked by dieters and professors alike, even relegated to the top tier (use sparingly) in an alternative Healthy Eating Pyramid.

You would also be forgiven for thinking of other foods, usually animal foods, as protein.

In food guides, foods are placed into various groups of similar nutrient value and these are usually fruit, vegetables, cereals, dairy and then a fifth group often named ‘protein‘ foods. Here ‘protein’ foods refer to meat, eggs, fish, poultry, legumes and nuts. The UK Eatwell Guide (1), although listing examples, refers to this group as ‘proteins’; the US Dietary Guidelines (2) refers to this group as ‘protein’ and ‘protein foods’; and the US Choose MyPlate as ‘protein’ (3). I note the Australian Dietary Guidelines (4) do not refer to this food group as ‘protein’ but rather lists the foods within the group ie: meat, poultry, fish, egg, tofu, nuts, seeds, legumes/beans. The Australian example aside, such messages of ‘protein’ as a food group from nutrition authorities in the UK and US, has a flow-down effect to health professionals and the public and this theme of ‘protein’ as a food group is common in the lay-press. One could mistakenly assume that those foods (meat, eggs, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts) are solely or predominantly protein; and that cereals, grains, tubers, potatoes, vegetables and dairy foods (which appear in different food groups) are thus low, inferior or poor quality sources of protein. Neither assumption is correct. Continue reading “Potato Protein Power”

Talking about fat …

 

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In food and nutrition “fat” or “fats” have various meanings:

  • Fat is a food nutrient.
  • Fats is a food group.
  • Fat is a component in the blood.
  • Fat is a description of body size.
  • Fat is a body tissue.

Confusingly, some writers mix these terminologies up. Even more confusingly, these various meanings of fat can be described by different words and in various ways.

Fat is a macro-nutrient in foods. The macro-nutrients are protein, carbohydrate, fat and (in adults) alcohol. Once digested and absorbed, macro-nutrients provide energy (kilojoules/ calories) to the body for use in various bodily processes. Fat has other functions in the body including cell membrane structure and transport of fat-soluble vitamins. Fats in food can be referred to as “lipids” where lipids are organic substances insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents. Technically though, food-fats are a sub-class of lipids known as triglycerides. Triglycerides have a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids attached. The fatty acids can be saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Food lipids include triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. (1)

Fats” as a food group includes solid fats (butter/ margarine) and liquid oils. This food group contain foods that are comprised almost entirely of fat (the macro-nutrient) with only tiny amounts of protein or carbohydrate (or none), and hardly any vitamins or minerals unless fortified. They are not whole-foods but rather extracted fats from whole foods; such as butter from milk, or olive oil from olives. They are generally not eaten as foods on their own but rather added to foods or used in cooking.

In the 1970s/ 1980s fats was one of the five food groups in Australia. Back then the five food groups were bread and cereals; vegetables and fruit; meat and alternatives; milk & milk products; and fats (butter or table margarine) (2). In the 1990s the five food groups had a major change and became bread & cereals; fruit group; vegetables, legumes; meat, fish, poultry, eggs, nuts, legumes; and (v) milk, yoghurt, cheese. At that time, it was considered nutrients in fats such as Vitamin A could be obtained from other foods, and fats as a separate food group was unnecessary (3).

The most recent (2013) Australian Dietary Guidelines do not include fats as a nutritious food group. However, it considers foods with mainly unsaturated fats (spreads, oils, nuts, seeds, nut butters, avocado) may have ‘health benefits’ (4). The Dietary Guidelines for Americans similarly do not consider fats as a food group but includes monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils (canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, sunflower) or whole-foods high in these fatty acids (nuts, seeds, seafood, olives, avocados) can form part of a healthy eating pattern (5). Thus, these more recent guidelines group some fatty whole-foods with liquid oils and do not simply group extracted fats.

Both these guidelines, as do many around the world, recommend dietary patterns lower in saturated fat.

Blood fats” are generally referred to as “blood lipids”. They move along in the aqueous environment of the blood attached to proteins as “lipoproteins”. It is postulated some lipoproteins may increase risk and others protect against risk of diseases such as heart disease and Type 2 diabetes. The various lipoproteins doctors test for are described here.

Fat” as a description for body size is considered offensive and stigmatizing. I agree and therefore will not discuss it further in this post.

Fat” is a name for body tissue. There are three main types. Essential fat is required in small amounts in the bone marrow, vital organs, muscles and nervous system; as well as structural components of cell membranes. Storage fat (known as adipose tissue) generally accumulates sub-subcutaneously (under the skin). Ectopic fat accumulates in cells of non-adipose tissue that normally only have small amounts of fat. Accumulation occurs viscerally (around the abdomen) and also may deposit in or around vital organs including muscles, liver, pancreas, and the heart.

This distinction in body fat accumulation is critical as abdominal fat and ectopic fat are considered risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Sub-cutaneous fat does not bear the same risk. In fact the definition of “obesity by the World Health Organisation is when body fat has accumulated to the extent of having an adverse effect on health. Although body-weight is used as a guide on a population basis (6); for an individual, body-fat distribution is an important consideration. Some people of lower body weight can be at risk of disease (and therefore technically ‘obese’) if they have a tendency to accumulate fat around the abdomen or ectopically. A good guide is waist circumference. Recommendations for Australian adults can be found here.

In 2013 when I was going through my own weight / health / emotional crises … I began to ponder the connections between the different aspects of fat. How did food-fats relate to blood-fats … or body-fat … or disease risk … and why was there this change in food-group categorization where fats fell out of favour and have now come back? Most importantly, what consideration did they have for me as an individual?

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Disclaimer: Nothing in this article or on this website should be taken as medical or dietary advice. Anyone reading any information provided within should seek advice from their own medical practitioner for any issue, disease, illness or health-related problem they may have. Always seek your own advice from a medical practitioner or dietitian before changing your own diet.
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(1) E Whitney, S R Rolfes, T Crowe, D Cameron-Smith, A Walsh. Understanding Nutrition. Australia and New Zealand Edition. 2nd Edition. Cengate Learning. 2014.

(2) Food For Health. National Food Authority. Commonwealth of Australia. 1991

(3) The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Background information for nutrition educators. Commonwealth of Australia. September 1998.

(4) National Health and Medical Research Council. Eat For Health: Australian Dietary Guidelines Summary. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013.

(5) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020, 8th edition. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. December 2015.Available at https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf

(6) Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. June 16, 2016. Retrieved 21 November, 2018.

My food history # 10 – 1990s – combining ‘friendly’ food with ‘healthy’ food makes a bland basic (yet healthy) diet

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Bread, rice, pasta, oats, potatoes, rolled/puffed wholegrain cereals become the base foods of meals in my longer-term diet. Photo by Leonie Elizabeth 01 March 2018.

Following my nutrition studies and some sideline research, I made changes to my diet: Continue reading “My food history # 10 – 1990s – combining ‘friendly’ food with ‘healthy’ food makes a bland basic (yet healthy) diet”

My food history # 7 (part 2) – food sensitivities – food challenges – proving the culprit foods

 

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Dried apricots are high in salicylates and contain sulphites.

Continuing my story on food sensitivities

The Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) Exclusion Diet (1)

I underwent the RPAH exclusion diet protocol in 1985. On the exclusion diet I felt ‘withdrawal’ effects of flu-like symptoms, aching joints, sore throat, cough, tinnitus (ringing in ears), teeth-grinding and headaches. I became edgy, uptight and lethargic. As symptoms settled, I became clear-headed, alert and energetic with natural colour in my cheeks, a change from my previous pale complexion with black rings under my eyes. Food cravings (for fruit) vanished. I became extremely calm, relaxed and organised. My blood pressure was 110/70. I was ready to perform the food challenges.

Disclaimer: Please note – an exclusion diet protocol including challenges should only be done under the supervision of a medical practitioner. Other reasons for symptoms need excluding before diet is tried. Some people may experience severe symptoms to challenges. In some instances these need supervision by a medical practitioner or in hospital.  Continue reading “My food history # 7 (part 2) – food sensitivities – food challenges – proving the culprit foods”

Food. What’s in it?

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Pear Ingredients (1-5). Photo by Leonie Elizabeth. January 2018

FOOD –  WHAT’S IN IT?

Food is comprised of many distinct chemical substances which can broadly be divided into nutritional and non-nutritional components.(6-8)

Nutritional components

Nutrients are chemical substances in the food we eat that interact within the body and are needed throughout the whole of life. There are six main types of nutrients in foods, divided into 2 main groups. Continue reading “Food. What’s in it?”

Good foods, bad foods

 

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Bread, rice, pasta, oats, potatoes, wheat /oats cereal. Photo by Leonie Elizabeth 01 March 2018.

 

Good food, bad foods

When my eldest son was about seven years old, he came to me distressed about a school project on food. He had learned from his teacher that brightly coloured vegetables and fruit were good foods. He had also learned fatty snacks such as crisps, and confectionery were bad foods. His distress was that he didn’t know how to classify many of the foods our family were eating. He wanted to know whether we ate good or bad foods.

There was a background to his question. Continue reading “Good foods, bad foods”

Food Processing # 1

 

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My last post discussed some difficulties in classifying foods by nutrients.
Another way of classifying foods is by food processing techniques.

Classification by Food Processing Techniques

Breaking away from guidelines that focus on nutrients, researchers in Brazil have developed a system of food classification based on the degree of food processing. They call this NOVA – ‘The Star Shines Bright’ – and have applied this to the most recent Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population (1). Continue reading “Food Processing # 1”