Glossary

This page is a glossary of terms and definitions used on the website.

Amines: result from the breakdown of protein or from fermentation. Higher levels are found in aged foods such as cheese; fermented foods such as beer and wine; and also in some fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, bananas and avocados.

Benzoates: are natural food chemicals in foods that impart flavour in foods and have a natural preservative effect. Benzoate preservatives can also be added to foods. Benzoates have a similar structure to salicylates.

Biogenic Amines: see amines.

Discretionary foods:foods and drinks not necessary to provide the nutrients the body needs, but may add variety‘ are described as those high in saturated fat, sugar, salt and alcohol; such as many biscuits, cakes, pastries, pies, processed meats, commercial burgers, pizza, fried foods, potato chips, crisps, and other savoury snacks. National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Dietary Guidelines. 2013

Food: a nourishing substance that is eaten or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provide energy, or promote growth. (Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health. Seventh ed: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.; 2003).

Glutamates: are the free-form of glutamic acid, naturally present in foods such as tomatoes and mushrooms, or may be added in food processing as glutamates of glutamic acids (620-625).

Macronutrients: are nutrients we require in relatively large amounts; ie carbohydrate, fat and protein.

Micronutrients: are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities ie: vitamins, minerals, and trace elements .

Non-nutritional food chemicals: colour, flavour, preservatives, food additives, condiments and pharmacological (drug-like) substances such as caffeine. Foods may also contain toxicants and unintentional contaminants.

Nutrients: chemical constituents of food necessary for normal physiological function. Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary. 2012.

Nutritious foods:make a substantial contribution to a range of nutrients, have an appropriate nutrient density, and are compatible with the overall aims of these guidelines’ are listed as fruit; grain and cereals; meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes, nuts and seeds; milk and alternatives. National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Dietary Guidelines.  2013.

Physiology: the study of the processes and functions of the human body
Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 9th edition 2009, Elsevier.

Salicylates: Natural food chemical group that imparts flavour to foods present in many different foods. For example orange, apple and tomato all contain salicylates.

Whole foods: foods themselves for example fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, lean meat, milk, yoghurt and not the food component for example calcium, iron, protein. National Health and Medical Research Council. Australian Dietary Guidelines. 2013.